چکیده: دومین پروتئین مهم لایه میانی پوست بعد از کلاژن پروتئینی به نام الاستین است که 4 درصد وزن خشک درم را تشکیل می دهد. الاستین می تواند تا 2 برابر کش بیاید.
دومین پروتئین مهم درم (بعد از کلاژن) الاستین است.
می باشد الاستین حدود ۴% از وزن خشک بدون چربی درم را تشکیل می دهد.
این ماده سفتی کمتری از کلاژن دارد و تا ۱۰۰% می تواند افزایش طول یابد.
الاستین توسط میکروفیبریل ها احاطه شده است.
فیبرهای الاستیک درم بر اثر آنزیم هایی مانند الاستاز تخریب می شوند. تابش نور خورشید به سطح پوست سبب تسریع این تخریب و تبدیل این فیبرهای ارتجاعی به حالت بی شکل، می گردد. برخی از لیزوزیم های موجود در پوست با اتصال به الاستین مانع از تأثیر الاستاز و محافظت از این فیبرها می شوند. علاوه بر اثر تخریبی اشعه ماورای بنفش خوررشید بر الاستین، مطالعات نشان می دهد که میزان الاستین موجود در پوست با افزایش سن، حتی در نقاطی که در معرض تابش مستقیم نور خورشید نمی باشند نیز کاهش چشمگیری می نماید.
ALARIA ESCULENTA — Edible seaweed high in essential fatty acids and antioxidants. A rich moisturizer, it stimulates the creation of hyaluronic acid within the skin and helps support collagen and elastin to promote skin elasticity. It has been clinically proven to significantly increase firmness when applied twice daily to the skin for 28 days. (INCI dictionary)
AMINO ACIDS — Amino acids are “the building blocks” that make up proteins. Because proteins are necessary to every living cell and are involved in every major process in the body, amino acids are essential to health. Of the roughly 28 known amino acids, 80 percent are manufactured by the body. The others, known as essential amino acids, must be obtained from the diet. Amino acids support proteins in the skin (collagen, elastin, etc.) and, used in cer tain combinations, help regulate oil production in the skin and scalp. Human hair is made up of 18 amino acids, which is why many quality hair care products contain them. (INCI dictionary)
CARNOSINE — Naturally occurring combination of the amino acids histidine and alanine, used in skin care products for its pro- tective and skin rejuvenating proper ties. An antioxidant and anti-in- flammatory, it protects collagen and elastin fibers in the skin from oxidative stress, improves elasticity and reduces wrinkles and other signs of aging. (INCI dictionary)
ELASTIN — See Hydrolyzed Elastin. (INCI dictionary)
HYDROLYZED ELASTIN — A naturally derived, water-soluble protein of bovine origin. Elastin is one of the three main proteins found in the skin, along with collagen and reticulin. Applied topically, it helps attract and retain moisture. (INCI dictionary)
Elastin – Hydrolyzed elastin (INCI dictionary)
CHLORELLA VULGARIS: Chlorella Vulgaris is a microalgae that stimulates collagen and elastin production while protecting these skin proteins from early cell death caused by inflammation enzymes elevated during stress. (cellularskinrx.com)
FERULIC ACID: Ferulic acid is an excellent antioxidant, neutralizing free radicals,thus preventing premature aging of the skin caused by free radical damage to elastin and collagen. Ferulic acid acts synergistically with other antioxidants, specifically vitamin C and E, to double their ability to protect the skin from UV radiation. (Interestingly, Ferulic Acid's antioxidant activity is actually boosted by exposure to UV light.) The addition of Ferulic Acid to solutions that contain l-ascorbic acid helps to stabilize 90% of the vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid) and 100% stability is conferred upon Vitamin E (tocopherol). Used in F*a*C*E Synergy Serum. (cellularskinrx.com)
OXIDO REDUCTASES: Oxido Reductases is a powerful antioxidant agent that helps to reduce the oxidation process that can lead to premature aging. Oxido Reductases acts as a free radical scavenger, neutralizing free radical molecules in the skin that can lead to collagen/elastin damage. Oxido Reductases has also been shown to have skin lightening properties. Used in Eye Bright Treatment Serum. (cellularskinrx.com)
PALMITOYL OLIGOPEPTIDE: Palmitoyl Oligopeptide (also known as palmitoyl pentapeptide, Dermaxyl, Matrixyl and Matrixyl 3000) is an engineered amino-peptide that when added to a culture of fibroblasts (key skin cells), stimulates collagen, elastin and glucosaminoglycans production. These are the key components of healthy-looking skin. Clinically proven to reduce wrinkle depth by increasing hyaluronic acid and collagen production, Palmitoyl Oligopeptide (PO)is a synthetic protein that is a fragment of collagen combined with palmitic acid to make it more lipophillic, to improve its stability and to enhance its affinity towards human skin. As with Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3, one could look at PO as a man-made precursor to collagen. PO was developed through research to identify a substance that would behave similarly to retinoic acid but without its drawbacks, especially in regards to synthesizing collagen. The reported results are as follows: In vitro: Increases collagen production by the fibroblasts by as much as 350%. Increases hyaluronic acid production by the fibroblasts by as much as 146%. In vivo: The following statistics were gathered using image analysis of volunteers who used crèmes containing a 3% concentration of Biopeptide-CL for 28 days. Surface roughness -- Reduced 17% Mean depth of wrinkles -- Reduced 23% Depth of main wrinkle -- Reduced 39% Skin thickness -- Increased 4%. The increase in skin thickness was considered especially notable and contrasts with the 6% reduction of the skin thickness that occurs after 10 years of aging. PO is a potent active cosmetic ingredient without the adverse effects (including irritation, dehydration or long-term toxicity and instability) characteristic of retinoids. Used in CSRx Lip Remodeling Treatment, Intensive Eye Therapy Creme, Firming Peptide Eye Creme, and Fresh Pout Lip Balm. (cellularskinrx.com)
RETINOL: Retinol is pure active Vitamin A which is scientifically proven to produce healthy, plump skin cells. Because Retinol's molecular structure is small enough to penetrate the outer layers of the epidermis, it can repair deeper layers within the skin. Collagen and elastin are positively impacted by the benefits of Retinol, as it stimulates the production of collagen in the skin layers, and helps to rebuild and repair elastin fibers. Retinol accelerates cell turnover, encouraging dead skin cells to naturally exfoliate more quickly, thus revealing healthy, fresh cells. It is an excellent ingredient that aids in the repair of sun damaged skin. Retinol has been proven to be extremely helpful in the treatment of acne without the drying effects (cellularskinrx.com)
SOY PEPTIDES: Soy peptides stimulate fibroblast proliferation and increase collagen and elastin synthesis. This results in firmer-looking skin. Soy Peptides are used to help prevent proteinase activity (as a result of exposure to UV light and ozone) from degrading collagen bundles in the skin. They can also can help to lighten hyperpigmentation and act as an anti-irritant, reducing inflammation. Used in Eye Bright Treatment Serum. (cellularskinrx.com)
Elastin: Protein found in the neck ligaments and aortas of cows. Similar to collagen. Can’t affect the skin’s own elasticity. Alternatives: synthetics, protein from plant tissues. (peta.org)
“Natural Sources”: Can mean animal or vegetable sources. Most often in the health-food industry, especially in the cosmetics area, it means animal sources, such as animal elastin, glands, fat, protein, and oil. Alternatives: plant sources. (peta.org)