اسید چرب = fatty acid 

اسید چرب = fatty acid

نویسنده:

ehsan hosnani
گردآوری، ترجمه و نگارش: احسان حُسنانی




چکیده: معادل انگلیسی کلمه یا واژه اسید چرب، Fatty Acid می باشد.

اسید چرب چیست؟


اسید چرب = Fatty Acid
coconut fatty acid diethanolamide = کوکونات فتی اسید دی اتانول آمید

exogenous fatty acids = اسیدهای چرب منابع خارجی

fatty acid = اسید چرب

EMOLLIENTS — Oils and other ingredients that soften and smooth the skin and reduce dryness, roughness and irritation. In hair care products, they restore lost moisture to hair fiber, contributing to shine and strength. Examples: coconut fatty alcohols, essential fatty acids, shea butter, jojoba oil. (INCI dictionary)
SOAP —A natural cleansing agent (surfactant) with the ability to emulsify oils and hold dir t in suspension. Bar soaps are made from the combination of fats, oils and/or fatty acids and sodium salts (sodium hydroxide, an alkali) dissolved in water. In liquid soap, potassium salts (potassium hydroxide) are utilized. While sodium and potassium salts can be harsh and drying, in a properly balanced formula, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide cease to exist as separate entities when they combine with the oils to form soap, leaving no potential for skin irritation. (INCI dictionary)
ACIDOPHILOUS / GRAPE FERMENT — See Fruit Acids. ADANSONIA DIGITATA — Baobab Oil. Rich emollient helps maintain skin elasticity and restore moisture to dehydrated, sun-stressed skin and dry hair. Its high vitamin D content makes it ideal for after sun use. Also rich in antioxidants—particularly vitamin C—and essential fatty acids, very nourishing to the skin. (INCI dictionary)
ALARIA ESCULENTA — Edible seaweed high in essential fatty acids and antioxidants. A rich moisturizer, it stimulates the creation of hyaluronic acid within the skin and helps support collagen and elastin to promote skin elasticity. It has been clinically proven to significantly increase firmness when applied twice daily to the skin for 28 days. (INCI dictionary)
ALEURITES MOLUCCANA — Kukui Nut Oil. The oil of the kukui nut from Hawaii, rich in essential fatty acids. A natural moisturizer and skin protector. (INCI dictionary)
ARGANIA SPINOSA — Argan Oil. Nutrient-rich oil, high in essential fatty acids and antioxidant vitamin E. Supports the skin’s collagen and improves softness and elasticity. In hair care products, it rehydrates and smoothes the hair cuticle to help reduce frizzing and add shine. (INCI dictionary)
BUTYROSPERMUM PARKII — Shea Butter. Butter obtained from the nuts of the mangifolia tree in Central Africa, also known as karite butter or African butter. A superb emollient, high in fatty acids and other nutrients, it is an ideal ingredient for skin moistur- izers, sun care products and hair conditioners. (INCI dictionary)
CALODENDRUM CAPENSE — Yangu Oil. Rich emollient cold pressed from the seeds of the African Cape chestnut tree and used for generations for its hair and skin conditioning proper ties. High in essential fatty acids and antioxidants, it is an excellent moisturizer and nutrient. (INCI dictionary)
CANNABIS SATIVA OIL — Hemp Seed Oil. A rich emollient and skin nutrient, high in essential fatty acids (linolenic and linoleic) and antioxidant vitamins A and E. Very soothing and moisturizing to the skin. (INCI dictionary)
COCONUT FATTY ACID CREAM BASE — Absorption base containing essential fatty acids, coconut fatty alcohols from palm ker- nels, aloe vera and vitamins A, C and E. Rich in linoleic and linolenic acids (vitamin F), excellent nutrients and skin conditioners. In hair care products, it is often combined with the impor tant amino acids cysteine and methionine, which are high in sulfur and excellent for the hair and scalp. (INCI dictionary)
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS — See Glycer yl linoleate, Glycer yl linolenate. (INCI dictionary)
FATTY ACID ESTERS — Waxes derived from plants or animals, which are less greasy than fatty acid extracts. Jojoba (Simondsia chinensis) and lanolin are examples of fatty acid esters. Used in absorption bases, and as emulsifiers in cosmetics. (INCI dictionary)
FATTY ACIDS — Basic building blocks of fats and oils. (See Glycer yl linoleate, Glycer yl linolenate.) (INCI dictionary)
FOENICULUM VULGARE — Fennel. Rich in oleic and linoleic acids, essential fatty acids. It has a tightening and firming action on the skin. (INCI dictionary)
GLYCERYL LINOLEATE, GLYCERYL LINOLENATE — Vita- min F. Skin protectors and revitalizers consisting of linoleic and linolenic acids, two essential fatty acids. Used in moisturizers, they soothe rough, dry or chapped skin on contact and help soften and revitalize dry or damaged hair. (INCI dictionary)
GLYCERYL STEARATE — Humectant and skin conditioner de- rived from vegetable fatty acids. (INCI dictionary)
GLYCINE SOJA — Soybean Oil. Good emollient, high in linoleic, oleic, palmitic and linolenic acids, essential fatty acids necessar y for healthy skin. (INCI dictionary)
HELIANTHUS ANNUUS — Sunflower Oil. The extract from sunflower seeds, a rich emollient high in linoleic and oleic essential fatty acids. A good base for massage oils and lotions. (INCI dictionary)
HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES — Sea Buckthorn Oil. Richest herbal source of antioxidant vitamins E and A (beta-carotene and other carotenoids), which help prevent the formation of free radicals. This nourishing oil is also high in essential fatty acids, particularly rare palmitoleic acid, a constituent of the skin’s sebum. An ex- cellent soothing agent for stressed or acne-prone skin and sunburn. (INCI dictionary)
HYDROLYZED VEGETABLE PROTEIN — Termed the building block of life, protein is our most import tant food, a leading source of vitamins and essential amino acids. Generally found in meats, eggs and dairy y products, protein can also be obtained from soy, wheat and other plant sources. Applied topically, vegetable protein is an excellent hydrator, readily absorbed by the skin for improved tex- ture. In hair care formulas, it combines with fatty acids and amino acids to coat porous or damaged hair and split ends. (See also Hy- drolyzed oat protein, Hydrolyzed soy protein, Hydrolyzed wheat protein.) (INCI dictionary)
LECITHIN — A vegetable extract high in natural fatty acids. Most common sources are soybean oil and eggs. (See also Phospholipids.) (INCI dictionary)
LINUM USITATISSIMUM SEED OIL — Flaxseed Oil. Emollient and anti-inflammatory, high in essential fatty acids, B vitamins, protein and minerals.Very nourishing to dry hair and skin, whether tak- en internally or applied topically. (INCI dictionary)
MACADAMIA TERNIFOLIA — Macadamia Nut Oil. An excellent moisturizer and protector for hair and skin. High in essential fatty acids, its natural affinity to human sebum makes it an excellent skin care ingredient. (INCI dictionary)
OENOTHERA BIENNIS — Evening Primrose Oil. Superb emol- lient and skin nutrient, high in essential fatty acids. A source of rare gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), also found in human breast milk. Ex- tremely beneficial in the treatment of eczema and other dry skin and scalp conditions. (INCI dictionary)
OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA — Prickly Pear. Antioxidant and nutri- ent, rich in essential fatty acids, clinically proven to firm and protect skin in 28 days with twice daily use. An emollient and soothing agent, it restores softness and elasticity to dry, mature or sun-damaged skin. An excellent addition to anti-aging products. (INCI dictionary)
PALM ACID, PALM KERNEL ACID — A mixture of fatty acids derived from palm kernel oil. See also Elaeis guineensis. (INCI dictionary)
PALMITATE — A salt or ester of palmitic acid, a fatty acid found in palm and other fatty oils. Often used in baby oils, bath oils, hair conditioners and moisturizers. (INCI dictionary)
PRUNUS AMYGDALUS DULCIS — Sweet Almond Oil, Sweet Almond Butter. Excellent emollient high in oleic, linoleic and other fatty acids, ideal in the treatment of very dry hair and skin. Soothing and moisturizing. A good absorption base. (INCI dictionary)
ROSA RUBIGINOSA — Rosa Mosqueta® Rose Hip Seed Oil. Oil from the rose hips of a rare rose that grows in Chile’s Andes mountains. High in vitamin C, and linoleic and linolenic acids, essen- tial fatty acids necessar y for skin cell regeneration, it has been used by South American Indians for hundreds of years for its healing and moisturizing proper ties. Clinical tests have shown that Rosa Mosqueta®, applied regularly, helps fade scarring and skin discolor- ations and encourage skin cell growth.There’s no better moisturiz- er for dry or mature skin and brittle, damaged hair. (INCI dictionary)
SAMBUCUS NIGRA — Elder Flower. A superb skin softener. Contains an oil high in fatty acids (66%), very beneficial to the hair and skin. (INCI dictionary)
SESAMUM INDICUM — Sesame Oil. Similar to avocado oil, this rich emollient is high in linoleic and oleic fatty acids. Often used as a carry- ing agent for other ingredients in cosmetic formulations. (INCI dictionary)
SORBITAN STEREATE — A surfactant derived from berries and other plant sources, composed of sorbitol, a natural sweetener, and stearic acid, a fatty acid. Used in cosmetic products as an emulsifier and wetting agent. (INCI dictionary)
STEARIC ACID — A fatty acid used as an emulsifier and thicken- ing agent. A surfactant, stearic acid helps bind soap par ticles to dir t and oil on the skin’s surface so they can be rinsed away. We use stearic acid from vegetable sources in our natural products. (INCI dictionary)
SUCROSE LAURATE — A fatty acid ester derived from sugar, used in cosmetic products as a natural emulsifier and surfactant. (INCI dictionary)
UBIQUINONE — CoQ10 (Co-Enzyme Q10) Liposomes. High in polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially linoleic acid) and protein, CoQ10 helps suppor t cell structure with antioxidant and protective action, and has been shown to reduce the appearance and depth of wrinkles and increase the skin’s moisture with regular use. (See also Liposomes.) (INCI dictionary)
Essential Fatty Acids – Glycer yl linoleate, Glycer yl linolenate (INCI dictionary)
Fatty Acids – Glycer yl linoleate, Glycer yl linolenate (INCI dictionary)
ACETYL HEXAPEPTIDE 3: A non-toxic amino-peptide developed specifically to reduce wrinkles and the signs of premature aging. Acetyl Hexapeptide 3 is a cost-effective alternative to injections and surgical procedures. Acetyl Hexapeptide 3 temporarily limits the overproduction and release of neurotransmitters that initiate and control the intensity of facial muscle contractions. This reduction in intensity reduces and prevents the formation of dynamic wrinkles that make your skin look aged. This powerful ingredient reduces muscle contractions in a non-paralytic fashion and without toxic side effects. It is naturally derived and non-irritating to the skin. Attaching the hexapeptide to the fatty acid, acetyl, allows the resulting amino-peptide to be easily absorbed into the skin. At a 10% concentration, Acetyl Hexapeptide 3 has been shown to reduce the depth of wrinkles up to 30% after 30 days of trial use. (source: International Journal of Cosmetic Science, Vol. 24, No 5, p.303, October 2002). Currently, doctors are beginning to recommend use of Acetyl Hexapeptide 3 skin serums in conjunction with paralytic injections to prolong those results. (cellularskinrx.com)
NIACINAMIDE: Also known as vitamin B3 and nicotinic acid, niacinamide is a potent cell-communicating ingredient that offers multiple benefits for aging skin. It stops the skin cells that produce pigment from transferring that pigment to surface skin cells, thereby minimizing unwanted dark spots. It is also an effective moisturizer helping the skin produce more ceramides and fatty acids, which are crucial components of your skin barrier. As that barrier is strengthened, skin is better able to keep moisture in and irritants out. Redness and inflammation are visibly reduced. Used in Firming Densifier Active Treatment Moisturizer and F*a*C*E Synergy Serum. (cellularskinrx.com)
Linoleic Acid: An essential fatty acid. Used in cosmetics, vitamins. Alternatives: (See alternatives to Fatty Acids.) (peta.org)
Cerebrosides: Fatty acids and sugars found in the covering of nerves. May be synthetic or of animal origin. When animal-derived, may include tissue from brain. Used in moisturizers. (peta.org)
Palmitic Acid: A fatty acid most commonly derived from palm oil but may be derived from animals as well. In shampoos, shaving soaps, creams. Derivatives: Palmitate, Palmitamine, Palmitamide. Alternatives: vegetable sources. (peta.org)
Caprylic Acid: A liquid fatty acid from cow’s or goat’s milk. Also from palm, coconut, and other plant oils. In perfumes, soaps. Derivatives: Caprylic Triglyceride, Caprylamine Oxide, Capryl Betaine. Alternatives: plant sources, especially coconut oil. (peta.org)
Fatty Acids: Can be one or any mixture of liquid and solid acids such as caprylic, lauric, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Used in bubble baths, lipsticks, soap, detergents, cosmetics, food. Alternatives: vegetable-derived acids, soy lecithin, safflower oil, bitter almond oil, sunflower oil, etc. (peta.org)
Arachidonic Acid: A liquid unsaturated fatty acid that is found in liver, brain, glands, and fat of animals and humans. Generally isolated from animal liver. Used in companion animal food for nutrition and in skin creams and lotions to soothe eczema and rashes. Alternatives: synthetics, aloe vera, tea tree oil, calendula ointment. (peta.org)
non-esterified fatty acids, NEFA = اسیدهای چرب استری نشده

unsaturated fatty acid = اسیدهای چرب غیر اشباع

Arachidonic Acid: A liquid unsaturated fatty acid that is found in liver, brain, glands, and fat of animals and humans. Generally isolated from animal liver. Used in companion animal food for nutrition and in skin creams and lotions to soothe eczema and rashes. Alternatives: synthetics, aloe vera, tea tree oil, calendula ointment. (peta.org)
Lauric acid, dodecanoic acid, saturated fatty acid with a 12-carbon atom chain = لوریک اسید، دودکانوئیک اسید، اسید چرب اشباع شده با 12 اتم کربن

Fatty Acid
fatty-acids
Fatty Acid
fatty-acids


واژه «اسید چرب» در مقالات سایت احسان حسنانی

دی اکسان چیست؟

دی اکسان محصول جانبی فرآیند اتوکسیلاسیون یا اتوکسیله کردن ( فرآیند افزودن اتیلن اکساید به اسید چرب) می باشد. دی اکسان یکی از آلاینده های شامپوهای حاوی سدیم لوریل اتر سولفات می باشد و چیزی نیست که عمدا به شامپو و محصولات آرایشی بهداشتی اضافه شود. مطابق استاندارد ایران، حد مجاز دی اکسان برای شامپوی بزرگسال و شامپوی بچه 10 میکروگرم بر گرم می باشد و روش آزمون نیز برای آن ابداع شده است.
  برخی از سورفکتانت ها مثل سدیم لوریل اتر سولفات که اصطلاح تجاری آن تگزاپون است، در ترکیب بسیاری از محصولات پاک کننده آرایشی بهداشتی مثل شامپوها و لوسیون ها استفاده می شود. در طی فرآیند تولید سدیم لوریل اتر سولفات، فرآیندی به نام اتوکسیله شدن وجود دارد که در واقع فرآیند افزودن اتیلن اکساید به اسید چرب است. محصول جانبی این واکنش ماده ای ناخواسته به نام دی اکسان است که به صورت ناخالصی در مواد اولیه آرایشی بهداشتی باقی می ماند.
مشاهده مطلب

پپتیدهای ماتریکین در محصولات آرایشی بهداشتی

ماتریکین به پپتیدهایی گفته می شود که در اثر تجزیه مولکول های ماتریس برون سلولی آزاد می شوند. پپتیدهای ماتریکین به پپتیدهایی گفته می شود که مشابه با ماتریکین ها دارند. به عبارت دیگر دارای توالی خاصی از اسیدهای آمینه مشابه پپتیدهای جدا شده از کلاژن های تخریب شده پوست است. پالمیتوئیل اولیگو پپتید، یکی از پپتیدهای ماتریکین است که با فریب سلول های فیبروبلاست آن ها را به کلاژن سازی می گمارد.
 این پپتیدها دارای توالی خاصی از اسیدهای آمینه هستند که توسط فیبروبلاست پوست قابل شناسایی هستند. این پپتیدها را ماتریکین می نامند زیرا در اثر تجزیه ملکولهای بزرگ ماتریس برون سلولی بوجود می آیند. دانشمندان این توالی را شناسایی کرده و از روی آن پپتیدهای ماتریکین را به صورت سنتزی ساخته اند. همچنین برای افزایش اثربخشی این ماده، پپتید را به یک اسید چرب به نام اسید پالمتیک متصل کرده و با نام پالمیتوئیل اولیگوپپتید در فرمولاسیون محصول استفاده می کنند.
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سورفکتانت ها: حلالیت شوینده ها

معمولاً حلالیت مولکول های شوینده در آب با افزایش دما افزایش می یابد و معمولاً در دمای خاصی میزان حلالیت به شکل چشمگیری افزایش می یابد که به آن دما نقطه کرافت می گویند. توجه داشته باشیم که برخی شوینده ها از این قانون تبعیت نمی کنند. یعنی با افزایش دما، حلالیتشان کاهش می یابد. کاهش نقطه کرافت باعث افزایش تولید میسل می شود.
 نقطه Kraft و حلالیت شوینده های آنیونی به وسیله یون مخالف (کانتریون)، مشخص می گردد. نمک های سدیمی اسیدهای چرب، دارای نقاط Kraft بالاتری نسبت به انواع پتاسیمی آن ها هستند ولی این حالت برای دودسیل سولفات ها بر عکس است. این نقطه در حالتی که نمک کلسیمی اسید چرب با نک سدیمی مقایسه شود، بسیار بالاتر خواهد بود زیرا تمایل انواع کلسیمی جهت ایجاد میسل کمتر از انواع سدیمی است.
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سورفکتانت ها: صابون ها

صابون یک سورفکتانت آنیونی از جنس کربوکسیلات است که اسید چرب تشکیل دهنده آن می تواند دودسیل، میریستیل، استئاریک یا اولئیک باشد. مزیت صابون ها آن است که حاوی مواد نفتی نیستند اما عیب بزرگ صابون ها ناپایداری در برابر یون کلسیم و منیزیم (سختی آب) است. صابون پیه، صابون نارگیل، صابون های اولئیک و صابون های تال از انواع مختلف صابون می باشند.
 پس چرا باید صابون در مقیاس بسیار بزرگی با زداینده های دیگر جایگزین شود؟ عیب بزرگ صابون ها ناپایداری آن ها در برابر یون های فلزات سنگین به خصوص کلسیم و منیزیم بوده که در آب های سخت یافت می شوند و دلیل دیگر، ناپایداری آن ها در برابر اسیدها است. نتیجه نهایی هر دو حالت یکی است، در هر دو حالت صابون از محیط آبی خارج می شود. دلیل این امر حلالیت کم نمک های کلسیمی و منیزیمی اسیدهای چرب و همچنین اسید چرب های آزاد در آب است. این نقطه ضعف موجب رونق تولید مواد فعال سطحی سنتزی شد.
 2- خواص شیمیایی: در محلول های آبکی با pH کمتر از 7 به دلیل تشکیل اسید چرب نامحلول در آب، نامحلول می باشند.
 از بین رفتن کف: صابون های C18 نسبت به شوینده های دیگر در برابر کلسیم کف خود را بیشتر از دست می دهند. خواص امولسیون کنندگی: می تواند درجا تشکیل شود 0مثلاً برای استفاده از این دست شوینده ها به عنوان یک امولسیفایر، می توان با افزودن اسید چرب به فاز روغنی و یک قلیا به فاز آبکی، این حالت را ایجاد کرد).
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سورفکتانت ها: سارکوزینات ها


 از کلرید یک اسید چرب و N متیل گلیسین تهیه می شود.
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دایره المعارف مواد اولیه فعال محصولات آرایشی بهداشتی

دایره المعارف مواد اولیه فعال محصولات آرایشی بهداشتی و نکات مهم در رابطه با مصرف آن ها نام کتابیست 250 صفحه ای که توسط پروفسور محمدرضا شاه بنده استاد مدعو دانشگاه لندن نوشته شده و چاپ دوم آن در سال 95 توسط انتشارات مرکز آموزش و تحقیقات صنعتی آن انجام شد. در این کتاب، اکتیوهای مهم صنایع آرایشی بهداشتی به ترتیب حروف الفبا به صورت اجمالی معرفی شده است. تعدادی از ترکیبات معرفی شده در این کتاب، در این صفحه به همراه خلاصه ای از آن با کمی اضافات و تغییرات که توسط احسان حسنانی انجام شده، معرفی می گردد.
 سرامیدها سرامیدها چربی های پوستی هستند که در گیاهانی مثل لوبیا، دانه آفتابگردان و دانه برنج نیز یافت می شوند. درست همانطور که ملات سیمان، آجرهای دیوار را به یکدیگر متصل می کند، سرامیدها نیز سلول های لایه شاخی پوست را به یکدیگر چسبانده و موجب حفظ یکپارچگی پوست می شوند. سرامید از یک مولکول اسفنگوزین Sphingosine و یک اسید چرب ساخته می شود. مهمترین خاصیت سرامید ها در پیام رسانی سلولی است و تغییرات سلولی مثل تفاوت گذاری (differentiation) و تکثیر سلولی (proliferation) را تنظیم و هماهنگ می کند.
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برند آرایشی بهداشتی بوتگاورد


 روغن بادام شیرین حاوی 95 درصد اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع (لینولئیک اسید و اولئیک اسید) و 5 درصد اسید چرب اشباع (میریستیک اسید)
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واژه «اسید چرب» در منابع و ترجمه های احسان حسنانی


EMOLLIENTS — Oils and other ingredients that soften and smooth the skin and reduce dryness, roughness and irritation. In hair care products, they restore lost moisture to hair fiber, contributing to shine and strength. Examples: coconut fatty alcohols, essential fatty acids, shea butter, jojoba oil. (INCI dictionary)
SOAP —A natural cleansing agent (surfactant) with the ability to emulsify oils and hold dir t in suspension. Bar soaps are made from the combination of fats, oils and/or fatty acids and sodium salts (sodium hydroxide, an alkali) dissolved in water. In liquid soap, potassium salts (potassium hydroxide) are utilized. While sodium and potassium salts can be harsh and drying, in a properly balanced formula, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide cease to exist as separate entities when they combine with the oils to form soap, leaving no potential for skin irritation. (INCI dictionary)
ACIDOPHILOUS / GRAPE FERMENT — See Fruit Acids. ADANSONIA DIGITATA — Baobab Oil. Rich emollient helps maintain skin elasticity and restore moisture to dehydrated, sun-stressed skin and dry hair. Its high vitamin D content makes it ideal for after sun use. Also rich in antioxidants—particularly vitamin C—and essential fatty acids, very nourishing to the skin. (INCI dictionary)
ALARIA ESCULENTA — Edible seaweed high in essential fatty acids and antioxidants. A rich moisturizer, it stimulates the creation of hyaluronic acid within the skin and helps support collagen and elastin to promote skin elasticity. It has been clinically proven to significantly increase firmness when applied twice daily to the skin for 28 days. (INCI dictionary)
ALEURITES MOLUCCANA — Kukui Nut Oil. The oil of the kukui nut from Hawaii, rich in essential fatty acids. A natural moisturizer and skin protector. (INCI dictionary)
ARGANIA SPINOSA — Argan Oil. Nutrient-rich oil, high in essential fatty acids and antioxidant vitamin E. Supports the skin’s collagen and improves softness and elasticity. In hair care products, it rehydrates and smoothes the hair cuticle to help reduce frizzing and add shine. (INCI dictionary)
BUTYROSPERMUM PARKII — Shea Butter. Butter obtained from the nuts of the mangifolia tree in Central Africa, also known as karite butter or African butter. A superb emollient, high in fatty acids and other nutrients, it is an ideal ingredient for skin moistur- izers, sun care products and hair conditioners. (INCI dictionary)
CALODENDRUM CAPENSE — Yangu Oil. Rich emollient cold pressed from the seeds of the African Cape chestnut tree and used for generations for its hair and skin conditioning proper ties. High in essential fatty acids and antioxidants, it is an excellent moisturizer and nutrient. (INCI dictionary)
CANNABIS SATIVA OIL — Hemp Seed Oil. A rich emollient and skin nutrient, high in essential fatty acids (linolenic and linoleic) and antioxidant vitamins A and E. Very soothing and moisturizing to the skin. (INCI dictionary)
COCONUT FATTY ACID CREAM BASE — Absorption base containing essential fatty acids, coconut fatty alcohols from palm ker- nels, aloe vera and vitamins A, C and E. Rich in linoleic and linolenic acids (vitamin F), excellent nutrients and skin conditioners. In hair care products, it is often combined with the impor tant amino acids cysteine and methionine, which are high in sulfur and excellent for the hair and scalp. (INCI dictionary)
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS — See Glycer yl linoleate, Glycer yl linolenate. (INCI dictionary)
FATTY ACID ESTERS — Waxes derived from plants or animals, which are less greasy than fatty acid extracts. Jojoba (Simondsia chinensis) and lanolin are examples of fatty acid esters. Used in absorption bases, and as emulsifiers in cosmetics. (INCI dictionary)
FATTY ACIDS — Basic building blocks of fats and oils. (See Glycer yl linoleate, Glycer yl linolenate.) (INCI dictionary)
FOENICULUM VULGARE — Fennel. Rich in oleic and linoleic acids, essential fatty acids. It has a tightening and firming action on the skin. (INCI dictionary)
GLYCERYL LINOLEATE, GLYCERYL LINOLENATE — Vita- min F. Skin protectors and revitalizers consisting of linoleic and linolenic acids, two essential fatty acids. Used in moisturizers, they soothe rough, dry or chapped skin on contact and help soften and revitalize dry or damaged hair. (INCI dictionary)
GLYCERYL STEARATE — Humectant and skin conditioner de- rived from vegetable fatty acids. (INCI dictionary)
GLYCINE SOJA — Soybean Oil. Good emollient, high in linoleic, oleic, palmitic and linolenic acids, essential fatty acids necessar y for healthy skin. (INCI dictionary)
HELIANTHUS ANNUUS — Sunflower Oil. The extract from sunflower seeds, a rich emollient high in linoleic and oleic essential fatty acids. A good base for massage oils and lotions. (INCI dictionary)
HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES — Sea Buckthorn Oil. Richest herbal source of antioxidant vitamins E and A (beta-carotene and other carotenoids), which help prevent the formation of free radicals. This nourishing oil is also high in essential fatty acids, particularly rare palmitoleic acid, a constituent of the skin’s sebum. An ex- cellent soothing agent for stressed or acne-prone skin and sunburn. (INCI dictionary)
HYDROLYZED VEGETABLE PROTEIN — Termed the building block of life, protein is our most import tant food, a leading source of vitamins and essential amino acids. Generally found in meats, eggs and dairy y products, protein can also be obtained from soy, wheat and other plant sources. Applied topically, vegetable protein is an excellent hydrator, readily absorbed by the skin for improved tex- ture. In hair care formulas, it combines with fatty acids and amino acids to coat porous or damaged hair and split ends. (See also Hy- drolyzed oat protein, Hydrolyzed soy protein, Hydrolyzed wheat protein.) (INCI dictionary)
LECITHIN — A vegetable extract high in natural fatty acids. Most common sources are soybean oil and eggs. (See also Phospholipids.) (INCI dictionary)
LINUM USITATISSIMUM SEED OIL — Flaxseed Oil. Emollient and anti-inflammatory, high in essential fatty acids, B vitamins, protein and minerals.Very nourishing to dry hair and skin, whether tak- en internally or applied topically. (INCI dictionary)
MACADAMIA TERNIFOLIA — Macadamia Nut Oil. An excellent moisturizer and protector for hair and skin. High in essential fatty acids, its natural affinity to human sebum makes it an excellent skin care ingredient. (INCI dictionary)
OENOTHERA BIENNIS — Evening Primrose Oil. Superb emol- lient and skin nutrient, high in essential fatty acids. A source of rare gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), also found in human breast milk. Ex- tremely beneficial in the treatment of eczema and other dry skin and scalp conditions. (INCI dictionary)
OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA — Prickly Pear. Antioxidant and nutri- ent, rich in essential fatty acids, clinically proven to firm and protect skin in 28 days with twice daily use. An emollient and soothing agent, it restores softness and elasticity to dry, mature or sun-damaged skin. An excellent addition to anti-aging products. (INCI dictionary)
PALM ACID, PALM KERNEL ACID — A mixture of fatty acids derived from palm kernel oil. See also Elaeis guineensis. (INCI dictionary)
PALMITATE — A salt or ester of palmitic acid, a fatty acid found in palm and other fatty oils. Often used in baby oils, bath oils, hair conditioners and moisturizers. (INCI dictionary)
PRUNUS AMYGDALUS DULCIS — Sweet Almond Oil, Sweet Almond Butter. Excellent emollient high in oleic, linoleic and other fatty acids, ideal in the treatment of very dry hair and skin. Soothing and moisturizing. A good absorption base. (INCI dictionary)
ROSA RUBIGINOSA — Rosa Mosqueta® Rose Hip Seed Oil. Oil from the rose hips of a rare rose that grows in Chile’s Andes mountains. High in vitamin C, and linoleic and linolenic acids, essen- tial fatty acids necessar y for skin cell regeneration, it has been used by South American Indians for hundreds of years for its healing and moisturizing proper ties. Clinical tests have shown that Rosa Mosqueta®, applied regularly, helps fade scarring and skin discolor- ations and encourage skin cell growth.There’s no better moisturiz- er for dry or mature skin and brittle, damaged hair. (INCI dictionary)
SAMBUCUS NIGRA — Elder Flower. A superb skin softener. Contains an oil high in fatty acids (66%), very beneficial to the hair and skin. (INCI dictionary)
SESAMUM INDICUM — Sesame Oil. Similar to avocado oil, this rich emollient is high in linoleic and oleic fatty acids. Often used as a carry- ing agent for other ingredients in cosmetic formulations. (INCI dictionary)
SORBITAN STEREATE — A surfactant derived from berries and other plant sources, composed of sorbitol, a natural sweetener, and stearic acid, a fatty acid. Used in cosmetic products as an emulsifier and wetting agent. (INCI dictionary)
STEARIC ACID — A fatty acid used as an emulsifier and thicken- ing agent. A surfactant, stearic acid helps bind soap par ticles to dir t and oil on the skin’s surface so they can be rinsed away. We use stearic acid from vegetable sources in our natural products. (INCI dictionary)
SUCROSE LAURATE — A fatty acid ester derived from sugar, used in cosmetic products as a natural emulsifier and surfactant. (INCI dictionary)
UBIQUINONE — CoQ10 (Co-Enzyme Q10) Liposomes. High in polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially linoleic acid) and protein, CoQ10 helps suppor t cell structure with antioxidant and protective action, and has been shown to reduce the appearance and depth of wrinkles and increase the skin’s moisture with regular use. (See also Liposomes.) (INCI dictionary)
Essential Fatty Acids – Glycer yl linoleate, Glycer yl linolenate (INCI dictionary)
Fatty Acids – Glycer yl linoleate, Glycer yl linolenate (INCI dictionary)
ACETYL HEXAPEPTIDE 3: A non-toxic amino-peptide developed specifically to reduce wrinkles and the signs of premature aging. Acetyl Hexapeptide 3 is a cost-effective alternative to injections and surgical procedures. Acetyl Hexapeptide 3 temporarily limits the overproduction and release of neurotransmitters that initiate and control the intensity of facial muscle contractions. This reduction in intensity reduces and prevents the formation of dynamic wrinkles that make your skin look aged. This powerful ingredient reduces muscle contractions in a non-paralytic fashion and without toxic side effects. It is naturally derived and non-irritating to the skin. Attaching the hexapeptide to the fatty acid, acetyl, allows the resulting amino-peptide to be easily absorbed into the skin. At a 10% concentration, Acetyl Hexapeptide 3 has been shown to reduce the depth of wrinkles up to 30% after 30 days of trial use. (source: International Journal of Cosmetic Science, Vol. 24, No 5, p.303, October 2002). Currently, doctors are beginning to recommend use of Acetyl Hexapeptide 3 skin serums in conjunction with paralytic injections to prolong those results. (cellularskinrx.com)
NIACINAMIDE: Also known as vitamin B3 and nicotinic acid, niacinamide is a potent cell-communicating ingredient that offers multiple benefits for aging skin. It stops the skin cells that produce pigment from transferring that pigment to surface skin cells, thereby minimizing unwanted dark spots. It is also an effective moisturizer helping the skin produce more ceramides and fatty acids, which are crucial components of your skin barrier. As that barrier is strengthened, skin is better able to keep moisture in and irritants out. Redness and inflammation are visibly reduced. Used in Firming Densifier Active Treatment Moisturizer and F*a*C*E Synergy Serum. (cellularskinrx.com)
Linoleic Acid: An essential fatty acid. Used in cosmetics, vitamins. Alternatives: (See alternatives to Fatty Acids.) (peta.org)
Cerebrosides: Fatty acids and sugars found in the covering of nerves. May be synthetic or of animal origin. When animal-derived, may include tissue from brain. Used in moisturizers. (peta.org)
Palmitic Acid: A fatty acid most commonly derived from palm oil but may be derived from animals as well. In shampoos, shaving soaps, creams. Derivatives: Palmitate, Palmitamine, Palmitamide. Alternatives: vegetable sources. (peta.org)
Caprylic Acid: A liquid fatty acid from cow’s or goat’s milk. Also from palm, coconut, and other plant oils. In perfumes, soaps. Derivatives: Caprylic Triglyceride, Caprylamine Oxide, Capryl Betaine. Alternatives: plant sources, especially coconut oil. (peta.org)
Fatty Acids: Can be one or any mixture of liquid and solid acids such as caprylic, lauric, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Used in bubble baths, lipsticks, soap, detergents, cosmetics, food. Alternatives: vegetable-derived acids, soy lecithin, safflower oil, bitter almond oil, sunflower oil, etc. (peta.org)
Arachidonic Acid: A liquid unsaturated fatty acid that is found in liver, brain, glands, and fat of animals and humans. Generally isolated from animal liver. Used in companion animal food for nutrition and in skin creams and lotions to soothe eczema and rashes. Alternatives: synthetics, aloe vera, tea tree oil, calendula ointment. (peta.org)
 
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